Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Introduction In recent two decades, with the rapid development and popularization of the world Internet and computer technology, Internet has been an integral part of human daily life. According to the World Internet Stats (2010), the number of Internet users around the world totalled 1.97 billion by June 2010, increased 444.8 percent over the last decade. The use of Internet as a platform and media becomes the mainstream under business environment, which resulted from the unprecedented increase of the Internet users (Liang et al., 2004). The broad reach of the Internet provides businesses an opportunity to expand markets with excessively low cost (Fulford, 2001). Gilmore et al. (2007) stated that adopting Internet and electronic marketing (e-marketing) strategy within business provide small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) an opportunity to reduce cost, improve competiveness and expand businesses. Since e-marketing adoption may bring potential distinct economic benefits, there is a growing number of businesses are implementing e-marketing strategies to improve business performances. With the improving awareness of the importance of e-marketing adoption among enterprises, e-marketing is growing rapidly and is significantly impacting the market behaviour of customers and businesses (Sheth and Sharma, 2005). In simple terms, e-marketing refers to achieving business goals by using world wide web (WWW), instant messaging, emails, online payment and other forms of Internet related technologies (Gilmore et al., 2007). An e-marketing strategy includes the actions taken in order to promote a brand via the Internet and a good e-marketing strategy plays a most significant role in the success of a business (Rampur, 2010). In China, SMEs have shown their strong abilities in grabbing the opportunities provided by e-commerce and its contribution to economy growth should not be neglected (Payne, 2002). SMEs are concentrated on in this research paper for three main reasons. First, SMEs play an important role in developing countries economy (Singh et al., 2009).ÃâÃ Second, SMEs have distinct advantage in adapting to new technology compared to large-scale enterprises. Since the existence of bureaucracy and hierarchy amongst SMEs is few, new technologies can be adopted faster and easier by SMEs than large businesses (Payne, 2002). Finally, SMEs frequently found the difficulties in operating businesses and competing in the market. For some reasons, SMEs are prevented from maintaining high qualified staff , reaching high level of technology or advanced management skills (Singh et al., 2009). As a consequence, strategically adopting e-marketing became an important business skill for SMEs managers. E-marketing provides SMEs an opportunity to develop market without geographical restriction. In order to improve competition ability for SMEs, the explanation of e-marketing strategy for SMEs seems especially important. It is believed that SMEs are developing rapidly and quantities of SMEs are undertaking e-marketing activities via Internet. However, a number of SMEs are implementing marketing strategies in traditional ways for some reasons. The lack of resources and skills prevents SMEs from improving competitiveness when e-marketing strategy is introduced (Maguire et al., 2007). SMEs prefer to focus on the products and services from the suppliers viewpoint instead of customers (Sheth and Sharma, 2005). The fact is that SMEs who are adopting new advanced technologies have enjoyed benefit s provided by e-marketing and achieved advantageous position (Chong et al., 2009). For example, email is applied amongst SMEs as an important medium to realize the communication with customers, share products and services information with customers and enhance customer loyalty (Merisavo and Raulas, 2004). Furthermore, quantities of SMEs employed B2B e-market such as Alibaba to negotiate and reach an agreement on transactions. Suppliers and buyers prefer to undertake market activities on Alibaba.com for low requirement, reliable online payment and large market share (Zhao et al., 2008).The benefits and opportunities provided by e-marketing adoption should be profoundly recognized by SMEs. Under this situation, it is a great opportunity for SMEs in Jiangsu to follow the world trend and adopt e-marketing to operate businesses. Our emphasis in this study is to provide an overall understanding of the B2B e-marketing development of SMEs in China, especially in Jiangsu Province. A clear insight of the B2B e-marketing adoption amongst SMEs in Jiangsu province will be provided, which will be resulted from emailed questionnaires and interviews. Moreover, the strategy for SMEs in Jiangsu province will be discussed, which can be used as guidelines and suggestions for marketers. The report begins with the background of e-marketing and related information which will be used in this research. Second, academic literatures concentrated on the existing literatures that related to the B2B e-marketing and SMEs in China and Jiangsu. The final section presents and discusses the findings of this study and future prospects will be discussed. Literature Review Literature review in this study mainly consists of two sections: literature review on SMEs and literature review on B2B e-marketing adoption. The first section includes the definition and characteristics of SMEs, development of SMEs in China and Jiangsu Province, importance of SMEs, challenges ahead and strategies for SMEs. The second section concentrates on the definition of the e-marketing, characteristics of B2B and the benefits provided by B2B solution, reasons, barriers and benefits of e-marketing adoption. Besides, a number of B2B e-market models and frameworks will be presented. Literature Review on SMEs With the popularization of the Internet and website, there appears a trend that a large number of SMEs prefer to undertake marketing activities via Internet. In this research, the definition of SMEs is defined according to the National Bureau of Statistics of China (NBSC, 2003), which is shown in Table 1. Industry branch Employees Sales (unit: 10,000 RMB) Total assets (unit: 10,000 RMB) Memo Industrial 300-2,000 3,000-30,000 4,000-40,000 Medium enterprise must simultaneously meet the three indexes, otherwise are small enterprises Construction 600-3,000 3,000-30,000 4,000-40,000 Wholesale 100-200 3,000-30,000 Medium enterprise must simultaneously meet the two indexes, otherwise are small enterprises Retail 100-500 1,000-15,000 Transport 500-3,000 3,000-30,000 Post 400-1,000 3,000-30,000 Hotels and restaurants 400-800 3,000-15,000 Table 1 Division standard of SMEs Source: NBSC The development of SMEs in China was described in previous studies. Chen (2006) concluded that the development of Chinas SMEs can be divided into three phases. During the first phase from 1978 to 1992, due to the government support and along with the Chinas reform and opening-up, there appeared great development of SMEs in amount and size. The second development phase was from 1992 to 2002, the establishment of socialist market economy and the incentive measures taken by the government enabled SMEs to enjoy high rates of growth. The third phase started from 2002 with Chinas entry into World Trade Organization (WTO), SMEs in China entered a new era. The government has shown the ambitious to accelerate the development of SMEs. SME Promotion Law of the Peoples Republic of China, which came into effect in 2003, was promulgated to support and encourage the development of SMEs in China. Similarly, Hong (2010) illustrated the advantages of SMEs in Jiangsu province, which has strong compet itive strength not only in per-capital GDP, but also in Internet penetration. In order to promote the development of SMEs and improve international competitiveness, Jiangsu province also carried out policies such as Promotion Rules of SMES in Jiangsu Province (SMEJS, 2006). Singh et al. (2009) concluded some promotional policies for SMEs by the Chinese Government, which gave us a comprehensive understanding of the contribution that the government made for steady and fast development of SMEs in China. Shi and Li (2006) suggested that the government should actively stimulate the development of SMEs, create an open and fair competitive environment and improve the service quality for SMEs. Furthermore, effective policies should be carried out to encourage the sustainable development of SMEs, especially policies in finance and taxation. Chen (2006) pointed out that the effective implementation of Chinese SMEs Promotion Law positively supported the development of SMEs, removed potential b arriers, improved competition abilities of SMEs, optimized industrial structures and promoted scientific innovations. Hence, SMEs in China achieved great development during that period. Some initiatives that recently carried out by the Chinese government were conclude by Singh et al. (2009), which were income tax policies for small enterprises, taxation policies for promoting employment, taxation policies for high-tech enterprise and service industries and financial policies. A number of researchers have discussed the important role that SMEs played in economic growth. Jutla et al. (2002) held the opinion that SMEs accounted 80 percent of the economy growth worldwide and are regarded as the economic backbone of each country throughout the world. Payne (2002) held an opinion that SMEs play an important role in developing economy and providing job opportunities in developing countries. Singh et al. (2009) indicated that in some regions, private SMEs have become an important pillar of the local economy. Chen (2006) thought highly of SMEs since they are not only an important revenue contributor, but also a great job opportunities provider. Liu (2004) argued that SMEs development and economic development are mutually dependent. Furthermore, SMEs play a significant role in the domain of increasing exports and promoting transformation of scientific and technological achievements. Singh et al. (2009) presented detailed data: SMEs in China account for 98.9 percent of total number of businesses, 77.3 percent of employed people, 65.6 percent of gross industrial output value, 63.3 percent of sales revenues and 54 percent of total profits. The above statements are supported by Yang (2003), who gave similar statistical data of SME shares of economy in China. Challenges ahead for SMEs have been observed by a number of researchers. Denis and Bourgault (2003) indicated that the ability of an enterprise to persistently improve business performance is crucial for SMEs in t he demanding market. Similarly, Vos (2005) suggested that the management ability of SMEs managers still need to be improved to strategically manage the enterprises. Moreover, SMEs are frequently facing the pressures of low level of technologies adoption (Gunasekaran et al., 2001), huge cost in developing products (Chorda et al., 2002), ineffective marketing skills and researches (Hashim and Wafa, 2002). Narula (2004) indicated that the main constraint of SMEs is that technical requirements could not be easily satisfied. Xiong et al. (2006) agreed with Narula since SMEs are lack of funds to employ advanced business software. Singh et al. (2009) made a conclusion on the constraints of SMEs in China, which are low technical level, lack of skilled employees, inefficiency of management team, narrow domestic market and lack of funds. Zhao et al. (2008) conclude three main problems that may block the development of B2B e-markets in China. First, problems presented by business infrastructur e such as legal, financial and logistic infrastructures have been a bottleneck for China to develop B2B e-market. The basic services that provided by the markets and society could not meet the requirements of building B2B e-market. For example, electronic payment systems and transportation systems still needed to be developed to improve transaction velocity. Second, SMEs managers are lack of thorough understanding about e-commerce. Current business culture among SMEs did not actively support scientific and technological innovations. Hence, managers of SMEs could not decisively and appropriately apply e-commerce strategies. Third, the low level of trust and security system limited the development of e-commerce in China, which increased possibilities of credit frauds, online frauds and contract frauds. On the contrary, strategies that may improve competitive ability of SMEs in China were presented by Singh et al. (2009). The first strategy is to make the best of reform and opening-up policies of Chinese government to expand potential global markets. The second strategy suggested that SMEs should uniquely define their nature and circumstances to operate businesses. The third strategy indicated that SMEs in China should make the best of guanxi, which is the soul of Chinese-style business. Literature Review on B2B E-marketing Since the literature on e-marketing is limited and the relative youth of e-marketing, there are not widely accepted or agreed definitions of e-marketing. Nagi (2003) stated that e-marketing involves the use of electronic method or media to realize the communication between sellers and buyers. Gilmore et al. (2007) pointed out that e-marketing is the action of taking advantage of digital technologies to create value to customer and communicate with them. Coupey (2001) suggested that e-marketing can be used synonymously with internet marketing. In spite of the fact that the internet plays an important role in e-marketing, provides timely information and email services for users worldwide, it is merely part of e-marketing activities (Gilmore et al., 2007). Strauss and Frost (2001) emphasize that the most important elements of e-marketing strategy are sales, advertising, public relations, direct marketing and marketing communication. Gloor (2000) stated that the main components of e-ma rketing strategies and Rampur (2010) listed five components of a good e-marketing strategy, which are search engine optimization (SEO), email marketing strategy, online advertising, online newsletters and medium news rooms. Based on the findings resulted from the survey conducted by Chong et al. (2009), three major components of e-marketing adoption are identified as people, information/resources and technology. Zeng et al. (2003) discussed the characteristics of B2B and the benefits provided by B2B solution. It is argued that externalities and exponential growth, critical mass, customer cohesion and disintermediation are four main characteristics of B2B. Zeng et al. also indicated that CRM-B2B integration strategies can assist enterprises pursue benefits and obtain business advantages. The first strategy is that CRM embedded under B2B, which can shift attention of the firms from products to customers. The second strategy emphasized that B2B module and CRM module are separated, w hich have the following benefits: easy and rapid to develop, low maintenance fee and high performance and scalability. Yang and Papazoglou (2000) documented the potential benefits that provided by B2B solution, which may include the increase in productivity, the reduction in salary payment and explicit record of auditing. Zhao et al. (2008) indicated that Alibaba is the typical and dominant B2B e-market in China. Alibaba.com provides SMEs an opportunity to compete in an open environment with the lowest requirement. Moreover, B2B e-market model was presented in Table 2, which involves factors: transactional process and controlling complexity. Transaction process Controlling complexity Information Negotiation Payment Delivery Low Providing quality information to potential users Medium Matching buyers with sellers and delivering exchange mechanisms High Controlling the risk for secure and reliable transactions Managing collaboration Table 2 B2B e-market model Source: Zhao et al. (2008) In recent years, a lot of issues on B2B e-marketing adoption have been discussed in academic papers. Zhao et al. (2008) introduced a practical perspective of the value creation process in Chinese B2B E-markets. Carson et al. (1995) suggested that marketing in SMEs and large-scale enterprises ought to be different. One of the advantages of SMEs is the ability to serve appropriate markets and maintain good customer relationship. Daniel and Wilson (2002) conducted a study on the e-commerce adoption by SMEs in the UK. Simpson and Docherty (2004) focused on e-commerce adoption support and advice for UK SMEs. Gebauer et al. (2007) argued that in China, B2B marketing adoption contributed a lot for the increase of service revenue. Gilmore et al. (2007) made a conclusion of the drivers and barriers of e-marketing adoption amongst SMEs. Drivers to e-marketing adoption can be divided into two categories: proactive drivers and reactive drivers. The former one included the opportunity to gai n competitive advantages, the chance to reduce marketing and operating costs and increase sales, the chance to improve business performance, the chance to enhance communication efficiency of marketing. The latter one included improve competitive advantages against large-scale enterprises and other local competitors and follow the industry trend. Barriers to e-marketing adoption could be demonstrated from three main aspects, which are generic characteristics of SMEs, practical implementation and maintenance issues and organizational obstacles. Similarly, Stockdale and Standing (2004) pointed out the benefits and barriers of e-marketing adoption. Chong et al. (2009) made a conclusion about the reasons, benefits and challenges of e-marketing adoption in China, Malaysia and Singapore. Reasons for applying e-marketing demonstrated by Chong et al. are competition in the marketplace, it is part of my marketing strategies, globalisation, follow the industry trend, demanded/instructed/advise d by senior management, customer satisfaction and other reasons. Problems of e-marketing adoption are security, implementation, expertise and lack of resources, senior management and time. Chong et al. indicated that benefits of e-marketing adoption are better relationship with customers, improve sales, increased web traffic, reduced marketing costs, competitive advantages and improved products/services quality. Robeiro and Love (2003) discussed three categories of e-business benefits which are business value, technical value and market value. Robeiro and Love also emphasize that those benefits are distinct with the return-on-investment (ROI) benefits. Daniel et al. (2002) concluded four clusters of SMEs regarding the different levels and stages of e-marketing applied by SMEs, which are developers, communicators, web presence and transactors. The first clusters of companies are those who operate businesses with the lowest level of e-marketing behaviours. Communicators are those f irms who generally use e-mail to realize the communication between customers, employees and suppliers. Firms at third level of adoption not only undertake activities that firms in cluster 2 are currently engaging in, but also convey company information, products and services through websites. The characteristics of SMEs at the highest level of e-marketing adoption are that they prefer to balance the account and delivery digital products and services on-line. E-business adoption and knowledge management within SMEs was identified by Koh and Maguire (2004). The main findings of Koh and Maguire revealed that SMEs tend to employed enterprise resource planning (ERP), supply chain management (SCM) and customer relationship management (CRM) independently. Authors Findings Chen (2006) Three development phases of SMEs in China Hong (2010) Advantages of SMEs in Jiangsu Province SMEJS (2006) Singh et al. (2010) Promotional policy for SMEs Julta et al. (2002) Yang (2003) Chen (2006) Gary (2010) The importance of SMEs to Chinese economy Nagi (2003) Gilmore et al. (2007) Definition of e-marketing Gloor (2000) Strauss and Frost (2001) Rampur (2010) Components of e-marketing strategy Daniel and Wilson (2002) Simpson and Docherty (2004) E-marketing adoption amongst SMEs in the UK Stockdale and Standing (2004) Benefits and barriers of e-marketing adoption Gilmore et al. (2007) Drivers and barriers of e-marketing adoption amongst SMEs Chong et al. (2009) Reasons, benefits and challenges of e-marketing adoption Daniel et al. (2002) Four levels of e-marketing adoption Zeng et al. (2003) Characteristics of B2B Yang and Papazoglou (2000) Zeng et al. (2003) Benefits of B2 B solution Zhao et al. (2008) Case study of Alibaba Table 3 Summary of existing literature The above existing literatures are important to this research, which were summarized in Table 3. To conclude, a large quantity of previous researches and studies have been made to explore e-marketing and SMEs, of which some studies may based on the Chinese economy. Nevertheless, few studies focused on B2B e-marketing strategy for SMEs located in Jiangsu province. The problem of B2B e-marketing suggestion for SMEs in Jiangsu still remains unsolved. In order to address the gap and set a guideline for SMEs marketers, this paper will provide a deeper study on the topic relating to B2B e-marketing strategy for SMEs especially in Jiangsu province. Research questions Some questions arise before and during the process of the research. This research seeks to answer the following questions: What is the current situation of the development of the e-marketing technology in Jiangsu province? What is the current B2B e-marketing adoption amongst SMEs in Jiangsu province? What are the components of B2B e-marketing strategy for SMEs in Jiangsu? Research Objectives The purpose of this study is to provide an overall understanding of the development of B2B e-marketing strategy for SMEs in Jiangsu Provinces. Several objectives are listed as follows: Provide an overall understanding of the development of e-marketing technology in Jiangsu province. Understand the current situation of the B2B e-marketing adoption amongst SMEs in Jiangsu province. Critically review the role that internet plays in B2B e-marketing strategy. Explore the components of B2B e-marketing strategy for SMEs in Jiangsu province. Research Methodology The philosophy of realism was reflected in this research, in which a scientific approach was assumed to develop knowledge (Saunders, et al., 2009). Realism supports data collection and help to understand data. As a scientific research, inductive approach will be applied in order to analyze qualitative data, which will be resulted from the face-to-face interview. Analysing Quantitative Data The term quantitative data refer to all types of data that can be counted or expressed numerically, which can be represented in graphs, tables and charts. The reason of collecting quantitative data is that those data could be quantified to answer questions of the research and reach research goals (Saunders, et al., 2009). Quantitative data in this study are collected from the questionnaire conducted, which range from descriptive data, ranked data and discrete data. Quantitative data were analysed mainly by manpower before the invention of powerful computers, which not only wasted huge financial, material and human resources but also may lead to unscientific results. Nowadays, quantitative data can be analysed by varieties of analysis software such as ExcelTM, MinitabTM, SASTM and SPSSTM. In this research, advanced statistical software SPSS 17.0 was used to analyse the quantitative data collected from the survey. In order to assess the reliability of some types of data, Cronbachs Ã Æ'Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ" value was calculated using SPSS 17.0. Besides, multiple-response method was applied to analyse the multiple-response questions to obtain scientific results. Descriptive tables and pie charts are presented to provide readers a straightforward sight and a clear understanding of the quantitative data collected in this study. Analysing Qualitative Data The term qualitative data refer to non-numeric or non-standardized data that should be summarized, restructured and categorised by researchers (Saunders, et al., 2009). The reason of collecting qualitative data is that analysing qualitative data help to develop theory by both deductive and inductive approaches. Word processing software, content analysis and text retrieval software can be employed to effectively analyse qualitative data (Catterall, 1996).Software such as NVivoTM and ATLAS.tiTM can be applied to assist qualitative data analysis. Since there are limited questions designed in the interview and answers of interviewees are obvious and simple, the data were analysed by hand instead of software. Inductive approach was employed to analyze the qualitative data collected in this study. The reasons of adopting inductive approach are that the data analyzed was not predetermined and non-standardised. Furthermore, it allows the researchers to obtain the understandings of the resu lts in a flexible structure. Survey Instrument Both quantitative analysis techniques and qualitative analysis techniques will be employed in this research. Johnson et al. (2007) indicated that mixed methods that combining qualitative and quantitative data are widely used by researchers. The definition of mixed methods has been defined by a large number of leaders in the field of mixed methods research. However, definition that used in this study was defined by Johnson et al., who are the leading authorities on mixed method research: Mixed methods research is the type of research in which a researcher or team of researchers combines elements of qualitative and quantitative research approaches (e.g. use of qualitative and quantitative viewpoints, data collection, analysis, inference techniques) for the broad purpose of breadth and depth of understanding and corroboration (Johnson et al., 2007, p. 123). Questionnaire is frequently used when explanatory and descriptive researches are conducted. Questionnaire aims at collectin g data resulted from the answers of the same questions by different respondents. Questionnaire can be divided into two types, which are self-administered questionnaires and interviewer-administered questionnaires. The former one was applied in this research since questionnaires are independently completely by the respondents. The main reasons of applying online questionnaire method are: The cost is low, Time saving for both researchers and respondents, Results can be more precise and easier to collect. An online questionnaire was designed on a professional survey website named https://www.sojump.com/. One of the advantages of this website is that once the questionnaire was completely designed, a link will be automatically created for administer. The link can be sent to the selected samples through email to finish the questionnaire. In order to obtain good response rate and higher validity and reliability, the questionnaire was carefully designed from individual questions to the layout of the questionnaire. Opinion questions, behaviour questions and attribute questions are designed in the questionnaire. There are two sections contained in the questionnaire. The first section involves the current situation of e-marketing adoption amongst SMEs in Jiangsu province. Questions in the first section asked respondents to demonstrate whether they did or did not undertake e-marketing activities. If they did, respondents were asked to indicate the reasons and benefits of e-marketing adoption and vice versa. For example, for a question Do you implement e-marketing strategy within your business, if 60 respondents answered yes, one descriptive conclusion can be made that three tenth of the SMEs in Jiangsu Province have applied e-marketing. The second section is designed to collect general information about the respondents such as name and email address, which can be used to confirm the answers of the respondents and send the final report to respondents who have i nterest in. Once the answers of the respondents are collected, the validity and reliability will be assessed. The use of interview is another important method to answer questions of a research and realize research objectives. According to Kahn and Cannell (1957), the term interview refers to the discussion between at least two people with some certain objectives. Face-to-face interview with general managers, professional marketers and experts will be carried out to collect qualitative data. The main purpose of the interviews is to explore answers of the interviewees and assist quantitative data analysis. Five open questions were designed in the interview which asked interviewees to state their opinions on e-marketing adoption. Sample Selection A database contained 200 names and email addresses of SMEs in Jiangsu province were obtained from a commercial website. Companies in this database are ensured to conform to the definition of SMEs in China. It is believed that these samples not only covered a wide range of industry branches, but also evenly distributed throughout Jiangsu province. The current situation of e-marketing adoption amongst these samples was unknown. However, due to the widespread concern and high degree of interest in e-marketing adoption, it is expected that a majority of SMEs have applied e-marketing. The emailed questionnaire will be conducted in early December 2010 and the responses collection will finish in late January 2011. The responses of SMEs will then be analyzed for the finding of this research. Furthermore, in order to collect open questions to richen the result of questionnaire, ten interviewees who are believed to have a good knowledge about both e-marketing and SMEs were chosen. Response Rate The total number of response received was 52 (total response rate 26%). However, 11 of these were rejected because of the repetitive IP addresses of respondents, which may indicate that some respondents may answer more than one questionnaire. As a result, the number of usable responses was 41, resulting in an effective response rate of 20.5%. The finding of this study will be achieved through these valid responses. The response rate in this study is acceptable compared with other similar survey response rates, such as 34% in Chong et al. (2010) and 10.4% in Daniel et al. (2002). Results of the Survey The results of the survey are mainly divided into four sections. The first section displays the characteristics and basic information of SMEs who participated in the survey. The second part explores the e-marketing strategies implemented by the respondents. The third section discusses the reasons of adopting and against adopting e-marketing. The last section displays the benefits brought by applying e-marketing and the disadvantages and shortcoming of e-marketing adoption. Characteristics of SMEs Business domain of the individual SMEs participating in the survey is presented in Figure 1. It can be easily found that IT companies and finance/banking companies were the largest group, which accounted for 17.1 percent for both. Education companies ranked in the second place (14.6 percent), and then construction companies (12.2 percent). 9.8 percent of the respondents are manufacturer, advertisement and travel companies and 2.4 percent were others companies. In addition, there were no communication companies among the respondents. Figure 1 Business domain of the respondents SMEs Figure 2 measures company size by number of employees. From Figure 2 we can find that the number of employees between 1 and 50 accounted for 39 percent and 51-100 employees accounted for 24.4 percent. Employee size of 101-150, 151-200 and 201-300 respectively accounted for 14.6, 12.2 and 7.3 percent. The other 2.4 percent were companies with number of employees above 500. Table 4 demonstrates annual sales revenue of the SMEs. The largest sales turnover is above ten million RMB, which is 7.3 percent. Sales between five million and ten million (7.3 percent), one million to five million (14.6 percent), 0.5 million to one million (22 percent), 100,000 to 500,000 (31.7 percent) and the remaining 17.1 percent were sales volume less than 100,000. Figure 2 Number of employees in respondents SMEs Annual sales (unit: RMB) Frequency % Cumulative percent Less than 100,000 7 17.1 17.1 100,000-500,000 13 31.7 48.8 500,001-1,000,000 9 22 70.8 1,000,001-5,000,000 6 14.6 85.4 5,000,001-10,000,000 3 7.3 92.7 Above 10,000,000 3 7.3 100 Total 41 100 Table 4 Annual turnover of respondents SMEs Current e-marketing adoption/strategies This section is designed to provide the current situation of e-marketing adoption among the respondents. Companies who have adopted e-marketing accounted for 56.1 percent, which is consistent with the authors expectations. E-marketing strategies applied by those SMEs are presented in Table 5. SMEs stated that corporate website (26.4 percent), online advertisement (19.4 percent), email marketing (12.5 percent), online payment (13.9 percent), third-party platform (8.3 percent), search engine marketing (6.9 percent) and link exchange (11.1 percent) were frequently applied when adopting e-marketing. Another 1.4 percent used other types of e-marketing such as blogs and other social networking sites. Out of 41 respondents, 18 companies have not applied e-marketing to develop business. Among the 18 companies who have not applied e-marketing, simply 5 companies indicated that they are considering adopting e-marketing. The reasons of and against adopting e-marketing will be discussed in nex t section. $e-marketing strategies applied Frequencies Responses Percent of Cases N Percent MCa Corporate website 19 26.4% 86.4% Online advertisement 14 19.4% 63.6% Email marketing 9 12.5% 40.9% Online payment 10 13.9% 45.5% Third-party platform (eg. Alibaba) 6 8.3% 27.3% Search engine marketing 5 6.9% 22.7% Link exchange 8 11.1% 36.4% Others 1 1.4% 4.5% Total 72 100.0% 327.3% Table 5 Frequencies analysis of multiple responses Reasons of/against e-marketing adoption Based on the theories associated with e-marketing adoption and results of other similar studies, six main reasons of adopting e-marketing are considered: (1) follow the industry trend; (2) it is part of marketing strategies; (3) improve competition ability; (4) improve customer satisfaction; (5) globalization; (6) SCM. In order to appropriately rank these reasons, Likert Scale was applied with 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= neutral, 4=agree, 5= strongly agree. Cronbachs alpha is the most widely used tool to assess the reliability of Likert-style rating scale. George and Mallery (2003) suggested that results of scales can be acceptable when Cronbachs ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ" value is larger than 0.7. The survey results may be questionable with ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"ÃâÃ ¼Ãâ¦Ã ¾0.6. In this study, Cronbachs ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ" value of reasons of e-marketing adoption was reported to be 0.643 (shown in Table 6), which demonstrated that the reliability of t he results is between questionable and acceptable. The results of the variables considered in the survey are as follows: follow the industry trend (mean=4.48, SD= 0.79), it is part of marketing strategies (mean=4.61, SD= 0.58), improve competition ability (mean=4.57, SD= 0.51), improve customer satisfaction (mean=4.57, SD= 0.59), globalization (mean=4.13, SD= 0.92) and SCM (mean=4.13, SD= 0.76). As a consequence, it is part of marketing strategies ranked the first position of the reasons of e-marketing adoption followed by improve customer satisfaction. The above results demonstrated that e-marketing adoption has been one of the most important components of SMEs marketing strategies. Besides, SMEs are more focusing on the products and services from the customers viewpoint instead of the suppliers. Descriptive Statistics N Mean Std. Deviation Rank It is part of marketing strategies 23 4.6087 .58303 1 Improve customer satisfaction 23 4.5652 .5 8977 2 Improve competition ability 23 4.5652 .50687 3 Follow the industry trend 23 4.4783 .79026 4 SCM 23 4.1304 .75705 5 Globalization 23 4.1304 .91970 6 Valid N 23 Note: Cronbachs a value= 0.643 Table 6 Likert scales of reasons of e-marketing adoption In spite the fact that there are varieties of reasons to adopt e-marketing, some SMEs refused to embrace e-marketing. The fundamental reason of this phenomenon is probably because the costs of applying e-marketing exceed the potential benefits provided by e-marketing adoption. Several reasons that prevent SMEs from adopting e-marketing are listed: R1): High cost; R2): Internet advertising is not effective; R3): Lack of technologies and securities; R4): Unnecessary; R5): Lack of time. As shown in Table 7, the most important barriers of e-marketing adoption are high cost and ineffective Internet advertisement, which accounted for 24 percent for both. This is followed by lack of technologies and securities (20 percent), unnecessary (16 percent) and lack of time (16 percent). Considering the results of the interviews, the results were reasonable since interviewees indicated that the main reasons that prevent SMEs from applying e-marketing are: lack of time, funds, exp ertise and technologies. $Reasons of e-marketing Frequencies Responses Percent of Cases N Percent $Reasonsa R1 6 24.0% 46.2% R2 6 24.0% 46.2% R3 5 20.0% 38.5% R4 4 16.0% 30.8% R5 4 16.0% 30.8% Total 25 100.0% 192.3% Table 7 Frequencies analysis of multiple responses E-marketing benefits and disadvantages This section concentrates on the benefits provided by e-marketing adoptions and disadvantages facing the B2B SMEs. In the same manner, Likert Scale was employed to analyze the benefits of e-marketing adoption with 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= neutral, 4=agree, 5= strongly agree. As shown in Table 8, the Cronbachs ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ" value was calculated to be 0.622. Among the benefits of e-marketing adoption, increase sales ranked the first position (mean= 4.47, SD= 0.59), followed by enhance popularity (mean= 4.43, SD=0.66), improve competition ability (mean= 4.39, SD= 0.66), better customer relationship (mean= 4.22, SD= 0.85), increase product and service quality (mean= 4.17, SD= 0.72) and reduce cost and increase profit (mean= 4.09, SD=0.67). Though large quantities of SMEs have enjoyed benefits provided by e-marketing adoption, it is not suggested every individual SMEs should quickly adopt e-marketing. A majority of interviewees indicated that SMEs should depend on their unique nature and circumstances to determine whether to apply e-marketing or not. Moreover, interviewees suggested that a secured network environment should be created when applying e-marketing and SMEs should fully utilize Internet advertisement. Descriptive Statistics N Mean Std. Deviation Rank Increase sales 23 4.5652 .58977 1 Enhance popularity 23 4.4348 .66237 2 Improve competition 23 4.3913 .65638 3 Better customer relationship 23 4.2174 .85048 4 Increase product/service quality 23 4.1739 .71682 5 Reduce cost, increase profit 23 4.0870 .66831 6 Valid N Note: Cronbachs a value= 0.622 23 Table 8 E-marketing benefits analysis The disadvantages and shortcomings of e-marketing adoption are analyzed in the same method (shown in Table 9). It can be easily discovered that security (mean= 4.61, SD= 0.58) was the main problem during the implementation of e-marketing, followed by high cost and maintain fee (mean= 4.26, SD= 0.69), implementation difficulties (mean= 3.96, SD= 0.82) and lack of technologies and customers (mean= 3.63, SD= 0.71). Descriptive Statistics N Mean Std. Deviation Rank Security concern 23 4.6087 .58303 1 High cost and maintain fee 23 4.2609 .68870 2 Implementation difficulties 23 3.9565 .82453 3 Lack of technologies and customers 23 3.6522 .71406 4 Valid N 23 Table 9 E-marketing disadvantages analysis Conclusions/Recommendations There is a trend among SMEs to embrace e-marketing and take advantages of e-marketing to obtain further development. As our study shown that a variety of reasons may prevent SMEs from adopting e-marketing, a majority of SMEs are positively applying e-marketing in different ways. Since the benefits provided by e-marketing adoption became extremely attractive in recent decades, many SMEs made substantial investment in e-marketing adoption without clear aims. However, the sustainable benefits of e-marketing adoption could not be achieved simply by investing. Having a clear understand of e is more important. Combining the reasons against e-marketing adoption and the limitations of SMEs, it is not suggested that e-marketing will be applied to every individual SMEs. The findings of the paper demonstrate that network securities and professional marketers should be paid special attention to during the process of implementing e-marketing. The paper has a number of implications for B2B SM Es managers, technicians and the government. First, managers in the market should be able to grab the opportunities provided e-marketing adoption to expand business and be aware of the potential problems of applying e-marketing. In this sense, managers should create a marketing team with high qualification and professional experience to implement e-marketing. Second, technicians should help SMEs set up efficient management network and reduce the losses suffered from unsecured Internet environment. For example, professional software should be developed for B2B SMEs to efficiently manage their businesses such as ERP software. Besides, in order to avoid the threats from unsecured network environment, advanced system-protection software should be developed for SMEs. Third, the government should expand the construction of Internet and business infrastructure and establish credit system in the whole society. In addition, the government should make every effort to improve the legal system and carry out policies to: Create a fair/open competitive environment for SMEs; Protect the interests of SMEs; Severely punish those crimes on credit fraud and online fraud; Stimulate and support the development of SMEs. To conclude, there is still a long way to go for e-marketing adoption among B2B SMEs in Jiangsu Province. Under the joint effort of B2B SMEs managers, technicians and the government, the future development of B2B SMEs in Jiangsu Province will and should be bright. Research limitations and future research The main limitation of this study is that the results were reached by a small number of SMEs. Considering the effective response rate (20.5 percent) resulted from a sample with 200 SMEs, the findings of the study may be questionable. The survey was not scientifically designed, which may lead to the low reliability of the survey results such as the low Cronbachs ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ" value. Furthermore, the study was restricted to the SMEs in Jiangsu Province and may not be applicable for other provinces in China. Future studies could explore the same topic in this study with larger sample. Moreover, ranges of the study could be extended to Provinces throughout China.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
The interaction between Ã¢â¬Å"theoryÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"practiceÃ¢â¬ in education is a dichotomy that people have been trying to understand for over 2,000 years. The relationship between theorists and practitioners is very complicated because there are issues that surround the pace of change in theory and practice. The debates that have occurred continue to occur through today in an array of perspectives about the purpose of education and about how to encourage learning. Practical knowledge can be defined as knowledge inhibited through practice, action, or experience. Theoretical knowledge is an idea that is a logical explanation of a set of relationships that has been experimented with plenty of research. Theorists are people who carry out in-depth researchÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Educators will develop a unique way of learning from their personal experiences. Professionals learn which learning theories are more effective for them to use in the classroom. In addition to thi s, educators can have certain classroom practices that can reflect their personalities and experiences. During the twentieth century, intellectual thinking has been conquered by a strong dissimilarity between theory and practice. Theoretical knowledge was considered to be of a higher standing and of more value than concrete skills. Much of the educational research concentrated on theory formation, both explanatory, for explanation, and authoritarian, for behavioral instructions. As a result, educationalists in different subjects and professions were challenged with the problem of bridging the gap between theory and practice, an undertaking that never seemed to be successful. During the previous few years, this dilemma has been evaluated in many dissimilar fields of education. Educators developed different models of knowledge in many different ways to solve the dichotomy between theory and practice. A theory should be developed from practical experience as well as research. One aspect of the learning process is any given theory. Educators can watch and carefully observe how their studen ts learn things and what they can do. From observations, professionals can create an explanation or a theory of an aspect of the learning process, such as BloomÃ¢â¬â¢sShow MoreRelatedWhy The Ndp 11 Was Suspended1207 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesalong with independence; respect for political control along with a commitment for to shape and implement policy in ways that promote the public interest. Interestingly Professor Good (1994:501) revealed corrupt and malpractices in the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Local Government, Lands, and Housing wereÃ¢â¬ ¦ The contract for the supply of teaching materials for the country s primary schools in 1990 was awarded to the International Project Managers (1PM) without any examination of the companyRead MoreDurkheim on Totemism1573 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿In order to truly assess the legitimacy of Durkheim s functionalist definition of religion, his notion of Social facts, (upon which his theory is constructed) must be examined. Durkheim advocated that amongst the reputable fields of biology, psychology and history, Sociology also warranted a specific focus. It was, for him: a sui generis something that had to be explained on its own terms. Sociology was not, for Durkheim, a field that should be susceptible to overlapping subject matter:Read MoreThe State Education Performance Funding872 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages I choose to explore the topic of state education performance funding, to better understand its strengths, weaknesses, and viability for the future of higher education funding models. The advent of this type of funding in higher education is a kin to much of the accountability and performance based initiatives imposed upon the p-12 system form the federal government. Programs like No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top are competitive based systems, created to encourage quantitative educationalRead MoreReligious Studies: The Ancient Mediterranean 680 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesways of perceiving the world by examining religious and cultural beliefs and practices through the lens of another culture (i.e. the Mediterranean World). In future research, I wish to explore the interplay of pagan and Christian religious traditions. I want to investigate which ways the average pagan and Christian Romans of the Late Roman Empire integrated each others seemingly disparate religious beliefs and practices into their own semi-coherent cosmologies. We must first keep in mind that theRead More The Study of Rhetoric Essay1038 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageshigher-level thinking, not just skills; analysis and evaluation, not just observation . . . . The study emphasizes strategies and practice rather than a body of facts and contemplation; thus the study of rhetoric aims for social application. Students are studying rhetoric in a technical communication course even though they may never hear of Aristotle nor study history and theory of rhetoric. Identifying a problem, gathering, interpreting, and arranging information, choosing an appropriate style, and makingRead MoreAdult Learning Theories For Adult Learners1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 P agesIntroduction Adult learners have been deemed different than their younger counterparts and extensive research has studied and complied different theories on how adults learn. The following paper will identify and describe several adult learning theories and give examples on how they associate with supervisors. Adult Learning Theories The following are the main theories that have been described by Glickman, Gordon, and Ross-Gordon (2010) on how adults learn. Andragogy Andragogy was popularized by MalcomRead MorePedagogy Of The Oppressed By Paulo Freire1215 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHow do we sum up what education is? Is it just the practice of memorization, or is it something we obtain through experience? Paulo Freire does a good job analyzing education in chapter 2 of Ã¢â¬Å"Pedagogy of the OppressedÃ¢â¬ . He reveals that there are two main types of education (banking education and problem-posing education) and shows how they contradict each other. By first giving a description of how both styles work, by showing how each one mirrors society, and then by showing the contradictionsRead MoreEthical Dilemmas Facing Social Work1619 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswork, this learning process is an integral part of applying theory to practice. With the growing influence of postmodernism, social workers also need to be prepared to recognise the eurocentric discourse that grounds and governs their disciplinary knowledge. It is against this background that I wil l reflect upon FoucaultÃ¢â¬â¢s power-knowledge axis, particularly as it relates to cultural competence. As will be demonstrated, anti-oppressive practice rests on the ability of social workers to analyse the powerRead More`` A Cyborg Manifesto `` By Manfred E. Clynes And Nathan S. Kline1429 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages154). The cyborg transgresses boundaries between human and machine by functionally operating with the combination of differential component. Thus, Haraway views the cyborg as being Ã¢â¬Å"resolutely committed to partiality, irony, intimacy, and perversityÃ¢â¬ (151). These commitments likewise can be applied in contradiction to the powerful social dichotomy, which oppresses in forcing definition of a wholeness in identity that will inevitably cast one side of the dichotomy as the (lesser) Other. When identityRead MoreDebate On Newsworthy Debate1094 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesseventeen years old with a knack for writing, an investment in history through story-telling, and curi ous about group dynamics, psychology, and sociology. When I was seventeen these werenÃ¢â¬â¢t the words I used to describe my interests in continuing education and because of this I remember scanning through majors that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t fit all my interests simultaneously. For a moment, Liberal Arts caught my eye as it gave me the freedom to explore my own identity. However, upon sharing this out loud with those
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Issue Statement. Cell phones have become an everyday part of life. The cell phones original purpose was for mobile verbal communication. Today, there are multiple purposes for cell phones which are verbal communication, email, social media, apps, and text messaging. Verbal communication no longer is the only way to communicate anymore rather text messaging today has become the preferred form of communication among college-aged youth and young adults. Although text messaging has become the most preferred form of communication it has had some negative effects on college-aged youth and young adults in a physical, emotional, and physiological way. Holtgraves, Thomas, and Korey Paul. Ã¢â¬Å"Texting Versus Talking: An Exploration in Telecommunication Language.Ã¢â¬ Telematics and Informatics 30 (2013): 289-295. Web. 26 February 2014. There has been a lot of prior research on text messaging. Research was conducted to study the language and type of words used in the text messages versus the language and words used in a telephone conversations. The most received text messages of two hundred and twenty four randomly selected participants were looked at and studied. Then these text messages were compared to two hundred and fourteen randomly selected telephone conversations. Results showed countless amounts of differences between the language in text messages and telephone conversations. The results furthered the understanding of the language used in text messaging Though there are otherShow MoreRelatedDream Phones Essay1000 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshaving a cell phone is the ultimate cool demand. It is most probably due to the hip new flip-tops or slim-style with cameras, but regardless what model it is and the reason for having one, people are carrying them. There was a time when it was considered that only the rich were those who can afford cell phones. It is probably still true, but there is another thought needed for the modern world. People today, rich and those even considered poor, have the latest cell phones. The use of cell phonesRead MoreAddiction As A Dependence On Substance Or Behavior Essay1094 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswith everyday addictions such as: cell phones, drugs, and gambling, affect peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s everyday life and lives of their loved ones dramatically. Almost everyone has come encounter with a cell phone whether it is a smart phone or just a basic cell phone. It was found that the use of smartphones is about nine hours out the day for college students. Individuals who cannot go without their cell phones or also known as being addicted to cell phones have the same symptoms a drug addict might have. AccordingRead MoreDigital Technology And Social Media1086 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessocial media have been revolutionizing the world, as where the world has become a smaller and a faster place. Ã¢â¬Å"Digital describes electronic technology that generates, stores, and processes dataÃ¢â¬ (Websters). Social Media Ã¢â¬Å"is forms of electronic communication (as Web sites for social networking) through which users create online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, and other content (as videos)Ã¢â¬ (Websters). With the growth of new technologies, communication has become a simple dailyRead MoreEssay on The Invention o f the Cell Phone1006 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesnot own a cell phone. There are ten year old children running around with iPhones. Cell phones have become such an important part of society. They have come along way with the advancements made in technology to allow these phones to do more than you would think possible. We now not only use them to contact people, but use them for social media, to take pictures, surf the web, and get information at the touch of our fingers. It is crazy to think that at one point there were no cell phones. WithoutRead MoreAn essay on cell phone addiction.1227 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCell Phones: Addicting or Not? Are we addicted to our cell phones? This is a common question that has arisen in the past several years as our phone technology and capabilities continue to increase. According to recent statistics, 85% of the U.S. population are cell phone users (Chen).We Americans use our cell phones to do just about everything. We talk, text, check our E-mail, surf the Internet, and interact in social networking, all on our phones. Because our phones have become so resourceful toRead MoreCellphones and effects on society1268 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesadvances every day and surely cellular phones are revolutionizing the XXI Century. New mobile devices contain most of the functions of a computer, better known as smart phones. They also give you the opportunity to stay in touch with whom you wish to and also you can take pictures, listen to music, and most significantly, it connects you with the rest of the world through the network. But have you ever stopped and think, how much time you spend using your phone, and how so often you check it? And withoutRead MoreNegative Effects of Cell Phone of Society1609 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSteve Sheridan Professor Simakowicz 1st Draft Paper 13 April 2010 Ã¢â¬Å"Do Cell Phones Help or Hinder Society?Ã¢â¬ Times have changed tremendously in the last twenty five years in regards to how the world communicates with each other. The birth of new technology such as cell phones with internet capability, laptop computers, and even the recently released I-Pad has made communication with anyone outside of talking distance immediately accessible. Even though to many people this seems like a movement in theRead MoreCell Phones for Young People Useful or Distracting?1031 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages There has always been controversy as to whether texting and cell phone use can cause young people to be less likely to be able to concentrate and focus. As young citizens we have the right to be able to own a cell phone and not be criticized using it for educational reasons. Phones give you access to the internet, teach responsibility, and is an emergency access to contact parents; however it can cause cheating in class room areas by sharing answers, it can distract people from doing work in classRead Mor eMoblie Phone Technology and The Social Impact Thereof Essay1263 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesINTRODUCTION Mobile phone technology is a technology that a vast majority of us would be familiar with, allowing one to call from almost anywhere, anytime as long as they connected a network. Mobile phones revolutionised the world of personal communication, because of this it is important that the impacts that the technology has had on the community. This essay will trace, in brief, the history of mobile phone technology along with an examination of the social impacts that this technology hasRead MoreThe Negative Impact Of Cell Phones On Society1074 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesToday phones are an important part of society. Everybody seems to have a phone, people can generally observe somebody messaging, on the internet or just making a quick call. Many detect these to be greatly helpful assets for everyday life; however, the vast majority do not stop to consider the negative impacts that mobile phones could have on someone well being and living. In the last 15 years, nothing has impacted society like c ell phones. Cell phones were once was an item of luxury has now become
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Introduction Enzymes are the ultimate catalysts of living things. Enzymes are made of proteins which are structured and directed by amino acids chains. Enzymes attract and fit substrate molecules to an active site. The active site binds the substrate molecules covalently to enzyme forming an enzyme-substrate complex, which catalyzes the substrate molecule into a product. Enzymes have the capability to break or build compounds which keep cell systems functioning. For example, our digestive tract has catabolic enzymes which break apart food for storage and reuse. Our lab experiment studied the relationship of benzoquinone production when altering the pH and temperature of the reaction, as well as enzyme and substrate concentrations. We used a Spec 20 to evaluate absorbance at 540 nm. Absorbance represents rate of product formation. We tested the substrate catechol and the enzyme catacholase and recorded the product benzoquinone. The objective was to identify the optimal conditions for the enzyme catacholase. I predicted that the reaction rate will rise with increasing enzyme concentrations until an optimal reaction rate is attained. This is because there are only so many substrates that need to react with the active sites on the enzymes. Once this equilibrium is reached the graph will stabilize and remain constant. I predicted that the reaction rate will increase with increasing substrate concentrations until an optimal point where there arenÃ¢â¬â¢t enough active sites on the enzymes to accommodate the influx of substrate molecules. At this point the graph will reach equilibrium and remain constant. I predicted that heat would accelerate the reaction because if molecules have high kinetic energy their motions will become increasingly rapid. An incline in the graph will be evident but a decline will also occur because proteins denature at high temperatures. The enzyme will lose its shape and thus its work function will diminish, like an overheated car. This graph should Ã resemble a pyramid. I predicted that the most acidic and basic environments would have a low level of reaction and that neutral pH will produce the greatest level of reaction. Living systems operate in a certain cell environment, pH levels vary in hydrogen ion concentrations. I presumed that the potato would need a neutral pH solvent because most enzymes generally function at neutral pH levels. This graph will resemble a bell curve. Methods We conducted four experiments. All four test results measured benzoquinone production by a spectrophotometer at 540nm. Higher levels of absorbency means higher rates of benzoquinone production. In the first experiment we tested how enzymatic concentration will affect the level of benzoquinone production. We had four treatments all; with equal total volume, a constant substrate concentrations and varying enzyme extract concentrations (Table A.1). The enzyme-substrate complex will form and react spontaneously upon adding the extract; therefore in all experiments catacholase was added last to each test tube. We covered the four tubes with parafilm and inverted the tubes for three minutes at one minute intervals. We then recorded the absorbance. In activity B our objective is to determine if substrate concentration will affect the level of benzoquinone production. There are six treatments each have equal total volume, constant extract (enzyme) concentrations and varying substrate (catechol) concentrations (Table B.1). After amounted water and substrate is mixed the enzyme was added last. The tubes were covered with parafilm and inverted for three minutes at a one minute intervals. Once each tube has been processed for three minutes re-zero the Spec and then record the absorbance units. In activity C our objective is to test how different temperatures will affect the rate of benzoquinone production. In our four treatments each was held at a certain temperature (Table C.1). We prepared the temperate environments by; putting 100 mL of tap water with boiling chips in a beaker and on a hot plate, we placed ice into a separate beaker for an ice bath, we positioned a tube rack for room temperature test, and then placed anotherÃ beaker into a warm water bath. We measured 4 mL of catechol and 1 mL of water into all four tubes. After we covered the four tubes with parafilm and inverted followed by the incubation of tubes in their designated environments for five minutes. After five minutes we added 1 mL of potato extract (enzyme) and covered all but the boiling tube. We inverted the catacholase (to mix boiling tube we carefully stirred). After adding the enzyme we measured the temperature of each tube and then incubated them in their temperate environments for five more mi nutes. Following five minutes we prepared the Spec and recorded the absorbance. In activity D our objective was to test whether pH level would increase or decrease benzoquinone production. We added varying pH levels into four tubes based on (Table D.1). We covered the tubes with parafilm and inverted each for three minutes in one minute intervals. After three minutes we prepared the Spec and recorded each tubeÃ¢â¬â¢s absorbance. Results and Discussion As the enzyme concentration increased, there was a solid increase in benzoquinone production (Figure A.1). My hypothesis stated that product formation would rise until a maximum was obtained. Based on the data, my results did not support my hypothesis. From this experiment I learned that the concentration of enzymes can significantly speed up reaction rate and that enzymes are versatile in that they will bind substrate molecules and catalyze at a high rates even if the substrate level is constant. This test could be improved by including more enzyme concentrations to broaden our data spectrum and perhaps then my hypothesis will be supported. As substrate concentration increased, there was an increase in absorbance followed by a plateau around 1.6 ml of catechol (Figure B.1). My hypothesis stated that product formation would rise until a maximum when absorbance would plateau because substrate molecules would outnumber enzyme active sites. Based on data gathered, results support my hypothesis because with 0.5 :1 substrate to enzyme ratio, production began to level off. From this experiment I learned that catechol concentration has a big impact because the substrate represents the workload that needs to be acted on and therefore the higher concentrations can overload enzyme workspace. If weÃ were to expand this experiment and include more substrate concentrations then we could assess the hypothesis more accurately to see if the enzyme reaction rate continues to remain constant when enzyme occupation is reached. Benzoquinone product formation climaxed at 52 degrees Celsius this is the optimal functioning rate, any temperature to follow will obstruct the enzymeÃ¢â¬â¢s function and result in decreasing levels of product formation (Figure C.1). My hypothesis stated that the enzyme will function faster with activation energy supplied from kinetic heat. But that this fast rise will subsequently be prone to a rapid decrease because once optimal temperature is breached, the tertiary structure of the enzymatic proteins will unravel into dormant amino acid chains. Our test results support my hypothesis in that there is a cone shaped graph which represents a maximum functioning level of 52 degrees Celsius. There is a rapid decline at 99.3 degrees Celsius. From this experiment we learn that enzymatic rate of product formation depends on the solution temperature. Such as the maladies fever instills, high temperature denatures proteins which disable enzymes capability to function properly. We could expand this experiment by testing different substrates other than catechol to see if this temperature relationship/pattern is applicable to other enzymatic reactions. The high acidic and basic solvents had a low reaction rate while the neutral/basic environment had the highest benzoquinone production (Figure D.1). My hypothesis stated that the graph would resemble a bell curve because most enzymes catalyze within a neutral solvent environment. Our test results support this hypothesis slightly because there was a bell shape curve, however I learned that the enzyme catacholase generates benzoquinone faster in a slightly basic environment specifically pH 8. We can expand this experiment by using other substrates (not catechol) with the same test process we can compare what kinds of substrates operate in certain pH environments. It would be interesting to find a pattern or categories in which substrate react accordingly with, for example the enzymes in our gut work in a slightly acidic microenvironment. Conclusion Enzymes help biological systems function. They induce the biochemical process by holding reactants in position and catalyzing the reaction to form the product. Catecholase, the enzyme, lowers the activation energy neededÃ for benzoquinone to form, which makes the chemical reaction happen much quicker. The rate of enzymatic reaction is very important to every organismÃ¢â¬â¢s survival. We act accordingly to ensure a stable environment in our bodies so that our metabolism and immune systems function properly. The enzyme is like a crane that transfers iron rods onto a building structure, without that mechanism the building would take forever to build! Multiple chemical reactions occur for a process to function. If the enzymes which catalyze such reactions arenÃ¢â¬â¢t regulated, metabolic pathways would result in chaos. The objective in this experiment was to evaluate what solute concentrations and physical environments the enzyme catacholase would function best to. We tested what enzyme and substrate concentrations and what temperature and pH levels would generate the highest reaction rates. We analyzed how these variables would effect enzyme function by measuring the rate of benzoquinone production in absorbance. We found that high enzyme concentration would increase product formation; that high substrate concentrations would plateau when no enzyme work sites are left vacant; that catacholase denatures after the optimal heat of 52 degrees Celsius; and that catacholase functions best at a pH 8 level. It is important to understand how enzymes perform the best because then we can have greater control over the maintenance of these vital systems. For example your body can become too acidic from alcohol poisoning which causes body malfunctions and ultimately a black out. In this lab I found that the enzyme catacholase worked best when enzyme concentration was greatest resulting in a positive linear graph, and that the substrate concentration would as well enhance reaction rate until 1.5mL of catechol concentration, at which point enzyme reactors are all occupied and the graph plateaus. We also can conclude that 52 degrees Celsius is catacholaseÃ¢â¬â¢s optimal function level and that a slightly basic pH solvent is most efficent for product formation. These experiments represent a selective study based on limited solute concentrations and temperature and pH test environments. Further study on enzymatic functions can proceed by adding more substrate and enzyme concentrations, this will expand data and grant a bigger picture as to how reaction formation will continue. In relation to enzymatic environment levels we can further the temperature and pH experiments by incorporating a different solute unlike catachol to determine if any patterns of favoredÃ microenvironments develop.
Thursday, April 16, 2020
Write a Description of the Duties and Responsibilities of Your Own Work Role Essay 1. Write a description of the duties and responsibilities of your own work role (Approx. 300 Ã¢â¬â 500 words) I consider my role at the school like being a character in a play. An actor has to do and say the things that their audience would expect them to do and say. Being a professional early years worker means doing and saying what is expected from all those involved. However, as Kath Bulman stated in her book Ã¢â¬Å"BTEC First Early YearsÃ¢â¬ , professionalism involves the ability to balance different peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations. As an early yearÃ¢â¬â¢s worker I must make sure that the environment is safe for children to be in. As stated by Penny Tassoni (2002), I must make sure that childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s environments are safe by carrying out checks and by being generally observant. All children have a basic right to build a positive future and this includes emotional, physical and mental health. Good emotional well-being and mental health will enable the child to build positive relationships, cope with the ups and downs of life, realize their own potential and have the opportunity to develop emotionally, intellectually and spiritually. Building a good relationship with children, parents, adults and colleagues is very important, as it helps in creating a welcoming and pleasant environment in the setting. It helps to develop trust among parents and carers. Furthermore a childÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare is paramount, thus working in partnership with parents and communicating with them, will help in the overall development of the children. According to Bruce and Meggitt (2006) respect and effective communication are two of the main responsibilities of a child carer. We will write a custom essay sample on Write a Description of the Duties and Responsibilities of Your Own Work Role specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Write a Description of the Duties and Responsibilities of Your Own Work Role specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Write a Description of the Duties and Responsibilities of Your Own Work Role specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Effective communication provides a means in establishing contact, influencing others and a way to build relationships. It is my duty as a carer to ensure that the children are provided with enough time and a proper space where effective communication can take place. I should identify each individualÃ¢â¬â¢s preferences and needs, and strive to provide the appropriate support that aids the child to reach his/her full potential. As a professional working with children I should make sure that children experience interactions that make them feel valued, respected and capable. This can be reached by taking into account the different backgrounds, requirements and communication skills of individuals. Thus, develop ongoing consultation between all those involved and review regularly. Arnold J. (2005) came up with such a plan that identifies training and development needs, setting objectives, when tasks will be reviewed and how it will be known when objectives have been reached. Another vital duty is to respect the privacy of children and their parents and carers, while ensuring that they access high quality care and play opportunities in the setting. I should aim to ensure that all parents and carers can share their information in the confidence that it will only be used to enhance the welfare of their children. I am expected to tend to my duties with immense responsibility since I am Ã¢â¬Å"intimately involved with the child Ã¢â¬â giving the child a sense of belonging, of being loved and important. Ã¢â¬ (Kath Bulman, 2004). When children grow up in a caring setting, they grow to like who they are, to be confident and have self-esteem. References: Penny Tassoni (2002), CERTIFICATE CHILD CARE AND EDUCATION, Oxford, Heinmann Educational Publishers. Kath Bulman (2004), BTEC FIRST EARLY YEARS, Oxford, Heinmann Educational Publishers. Arnold, J. (2005) WORK PSYCHOLOGY, 4th edition. Essex: Pearson. Bruce, T and Meggitt, C, (2006) CHILD CARE AND EDUCATION 4th edition. London : Hodder Arnold. 2. Prepare an explanation of the expectations about your own work role as expressed in relevant standards. (Approx. 250 Ã¢â¬â 350 words) AS a child carer I am expected to keep in mind that childhood is a very important phase in life, not just because children represent the future, but also to Ã¢â¬Å"allow children to live in the present and to realize their full potentialÃ¢â¬ . The National Standards stresses the importance of having Ã¢â¬Å"suitable personsÃ¢â¬ . When parents opt to trust carers with their children, the former must provide the best alternate care possible, ensuring their safety and well being. As a carer I should satisfy the recruitment criteria, being; age, experience, qualification and references. Any child care facility should provide appropriate carer to child ratios that enables children to receive individual attention from their key worker. The latter should provide them with opportunities for self-expression, to play individually and to interact with others. I am expected to ensure that the children are welcomed in an adequate space that ensures safety, hygiene and security. The service should be physically accessible, including toilets that are accessible to everyone using the centre. Any equipment used should be in compliance with good standards of safety and hygiene. Strict standards of hygiene should be practiced and encouraged to prevent and control the spread of infections. Moreover, I am expected to promote the benefits of a healthy diet and encourage parents to reinforce them. The facility should be managed by a qualified person who sets clear objectives, to both parents and staff, which should be reinforced by having a written manual containing all the policies and procedures of the centre. Furthermore, I am expected to provide diverse opportunities that cater for the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s diverse needs, in order to promote their intellectual curiosity and development. I should design various activities; to promote inclusion and participation, respecting race, culture or religion of any child. I am expected to encourage children to take responsibility for their own behaviour and to show care and consideration towards others. I should consult the parents on a regular basis regarding the progress and development of the children. Finally, I am expected to be trained to recognize signs of suspected abuse and report these findings to my manager, who is then obliged to report to the authorities. Such issues should be dealt with extreme confidentiality. References: Ministry for the Family and Social Solidairity (July 2006). National Standards for Child Day Care facilities.
Friday, March 13, 2020
Top Ten Dishes from theClassics For her series Fictitious Dishes, photographer Dinah Fried staged her favorite food scenes from literature. Via The Picture Show, heres a sample of her amazing work to delight foodies and book lovers alike. Im interested in creating something that evokes an emotional feeling for myself and others. I wanted to see how other people who had read the books would connect on that level. On the Road I ate apple pie and ice cream - it was getting better as I got deeper into Iowa, the pie bigger, the ice cream richer. The Bell Jar Then I tackled the avocado and crabmeat salad. Avocados are my favorite fruit. Every Sunday my grandfather used to bring me an avocado pear hidden at the bottom of his briefcase under six soiled shirts and the Sunday comics. Oliver Twist The gruel disappeared; the boys whispered each other, and winked at Oliver; while his next neighbors nudged him. Child as he was, he was desperate with hunger, and reckless with misery. Alice in Wonderland There was a table set out under a tree in front of the house, and the March Hare and the Hatter were having tea at it The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo Then he made himself lunch, which consisted of coffee and open sandwiches, and sat in the garden, where he was typing up the notes of his conversation with Pastor Falk. The Catcher in the Rye After I had left the skating rink I went to a drugstore and had a Swiss cheese sandwich and a malted milk. Heidi The kettle soon began to boil, and meanwhile the old man held a large piece of cheese on a long iron fork over the fire, turning it round and round till it was toasted a nice golden yellow color on each side. Moby Dick It was made of small juicy clams, scarcely bigger than hazel nuts, mixed with pounded ship biscuit, and salted pork cut up into little flakes; the whole enriched with butter, and plentifully seasoned with pepper and salt. To Kill a Mockingbird The kitchen table was loaded with enough food to bury the family: hunks of salt pork, tomatoes, beans, even scuppernongs. Swanns Way She sent out for one of those short, plump little cakes calledÃ petites madeleines, which look as though they had been moulded in the fluted scallop of a pilgrims shell.
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Cybercrimes for IT Professionals - Essay Example Tribunals consider establishing a global cyber court with a single aim to contest and adjudicate all cyber felons who committed various cyber crimes around the globe. For example, a cyber felon from Japan, who was caught hacking a business system in the United States, will be tried through the cyber court. However, this idealistic notion is in the process of development and agreement between countries. Nevertheless, it is best for business organizations to ensure and perfectly manage their cyber systems in order to avoid an attack by cyber felons, such as strengthening the computer network access made by the organizational management. In this way, business management can first handedly secure and elude any potential threat onto their system database (McConnell International, 2000; Johansson, 2006b). The problem on cyber crime is not far from resolution because of new and evolving ways to stop such offense. The basic way to stop cyber crime is not through a litigation process held by legal professionals, but it will depend on the IT professionals who are hired to make sure that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s data system is secured and